Main Article Content
World Health Organization defines Lassa fever as a viral haemorrhagic fever that is transmitted to people through contact with food or household items contaminated with rat pee or defecation. Secondary transmission occurs in human to human through direct contact with the blood, discharges, organs and other body liquids of infected person’s which greater percentage are of nosocomial infections. This acute viral hemorrhagic fever brought about by the Lassa infection which was first described in 1969 and named after the town of Lassa (Yedseram River valley), in Borno State, Nigeria. The Lassa fever is a member of are naviridiae virus family like Ebola; clinical cases of the disease had been known for longer than three decades but had not been associated with a viral pathogen. The virus targets antigen-presenting cells, (mainly dendritic cells) and endothelial cells majorly. ELISA test for antigen and IgM antibodies gives 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity of the virus in cells. High clustering of incidence near high intensity sampling is the reason for inadequate view at the impact of Lassa in Nigeria. All persons suspected to have contracted Lassa fever infection should be quarantined in isolation facilities, body fluids and feaces of persons infected with Lassa virus should be properly disposed. Ribavirin has been approved for the treatment of Lassa fever, but prevention is still the best. Rodents should be kept out of homes and food supplies. Effective personal hygiene is will go a long way in eradicating this disease, also grains and other foodstuffs should be stored in rodent-proof containers.
World Health Organization. Lassa fever. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 2019.
Public Health England. Lassa fever: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines Archived 2 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine; 2016.
(First published: 5 September 2014)
Yun NE, Walker DH. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever. Viruses. 2012;4(12):2031-2048.
Sogoba N, Feldmann H, Safronetz D. Lassa Fever in West Africa: Evidence for an expanded region of Endemicity. Zoonoses & Public Health. 2012;59(59):43-47.
Centre for Disease and Control and Prevention. Lassa Fever; 2016.
Dyal Jamie and Fohner Ben. Lassa Virus. Stanford University Humans and Viruses Class of 2005, North Dakota, United State; 2018.
Fehling Sarah Katharina, Frank Lennartz, and Thomas Strecker. Multifunctional Nature of the Arenavirus RING Finger Protein Z. Journal of Virology. 2012;4(11):2973-3011.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lassa fever; 2018.
[Retrieved 2020 May 13]
Oppliger Joel, Giulia Torriani, Antonio Herrador, and Stefan Kunz. Lassa Virus Cell Entry via Dystroglycan Involves an Unusual Pathway of Macropinocytosis. Journal of Virology. 2016;90(14):6412-6429.
Bausch DG. In: Clinical Infectious disease. Schlossberg D, editor. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Viral haemorrhagic fevers. 2008;1319–1332.
McCormick JB, King IJ, Webb PA, Johnson KM, O’sullivan R, Smith ES, Trippel S, Tong TC. A case-control study of the clinical diagnosis and course of Lassa fever. J Infect Dis. 1987;155(3): 445–455.
Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016. Archived from the original on 1 November 2016.
(Retrieved 2 November 2016)
Hastie Kathryn M, King Liam B, Zandonatti Michelle A, Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Menéndez-Arias, Luis. Structural Basis for the dsRNA Specificity of the Lassa Virus NP Exonuclease. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(8):1-8.
World Health Organization. Target Product Profiles for Lassa virus Vaccine; 2017.
(Retrieved 11 May 2020)
World Health Organization. Emergencies, Preparedness and Response: Lassa Fever Nigeria; 2018.
Ehichioya DU, Asogun DA, Ehimuan J, Okokhere PO, Pahlmann M, Ölschläger S, Becker-Ziaja B, Günther S, et al. Hospital-based surveillance for Lassa fever in Edo State, Nigeria, 2005-2008". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2012;17(8):1001-1004
Preston, Richard. The demon in the freezer: a true story. New York: Random House; 2010.
Tal Brosh-Nissimov. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa. Case Reports in Neurological Medicine. 2018;10(2):150-158.
Dzotsi EK, Ohene SA, Asiedu-Bekoe F, Amankwa J, Sarkodie B, Adjabeng M, Bonney JHK. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal. 2012;46(3):166.
Richmond JK, Baglole DJ. Lassa fever: Epidemiology, clinical features and social consequences. British Medical Journal. 2011;327(7426):1271-1275.
Werner and Dietrich. Biological Resources and Migration. Springer. 2004;363.
Okokhere Peter O, Cyril O. Erameh, Francis Alikah. Acute Lassa Virus Encephalitis with Lassa Virus in the Cerebrospinal Fluid but Absent in the Blood: A case report with a positive outcome. Journal of Virology. 2018;86:10811-10835.
Asogun DA, Adomeh DI, Ehimuan J. Molecular diagnostics for Lassa Fever at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: Lessons Learnt from Two Years of Laboratory Operation". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(9):e1839.
Peterson, A. Townsend; Moses, Lina M.; Bausch, Daniel G. Mapping transmission risk of Lassa fever in West Africa: The Importance of Quality Control, Sampling Bias and Error Weighting. PLOS One. 2014;9(8):e100711.
Go AS, Bauman M, King SM, Fonarow GC, Lawrence W, Williams KA, Sanchez E. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: A science advisory from the american heart association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension. 2013;63(4):878-85.
Aduayi Victor Adovi, Ibikunle Oluwafunmilayo, Fashola Adebayo Matthew, Yusuf Musah, Odu Olusola1, Oluwafemi Omoniyi Stephen, Olomojobi Folakemi, Ojo Simeon Olurotimi, Omole Ayotunde , Onwu Victor , Bamidele Oni (2017). Lassa Fever Outbreak in Southwestern Nigeria: The Ekiti State Response amidst Economic Recession Central African Journal of Public Health 2017;3(2):11-18.
Adedire Elizabeth B, Gbolahan A, Nguku P, Usman A, Ogunniyi O, Gbadegesin Y. Outbreak of Lassa Fever in a Bakery: Investigation and Epidemiological Surveillance of Contact Persons, Ibadan Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria. 16TH ICID Conference 2ND- 5 TH April 2014 International Convention Centre Cape town South Africa; 2014.
Fisher-Hoch SP and McCormick JB. Lassa fever vaccine. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2011;3(2):189-97.
Crotty S, Cameron C, Andino R. Ribavirin's antiviral mechanism of action: Lethal Mutagenesis. Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2002;80(2):86-95.
Price ME, Fisher-Hoch SP, Craven RB, McCormick JB. A prospective study of maternal and fetal outcome in acute Lassa fever infection during pregnancy. British Medical Journal. 2011;297(6648):584-7.
Daso, Samuel, Lassa fever... What you need to know.Journal of Virology, 2017;86:10811-10835.
Geisbert TW, Jones S, Fritz EA, et al. Development of a New Vaccine for the Prevention of Lassa Fever". PLOS ONE Medicine. 2011;2(6):e183.
World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting; 2014.