Main Article Content
Aims: This study was carried out to ascertain hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among fresh undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Lulu Briggs Health Center, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between June 2014 and July 2015.
Methodology: The study was conducted on fresh undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt (43 male and 57 female) accessing HIV services at Lulu Briggs Health Center, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, who consented to be part of the study. A total of 100 patients were recruited for the study. All 100 blood samples were HIV positive and then screened using HBsAg one-step Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test strip and HBsAg one Ultra ELISA kit for the detection of HBsAg.
Results: HBsAg was detected in 2(2%) of the subjects. Patients of the age group 16-20 years had the highest percentage of HIV/HBV co-infection (6.5%). HIV/HBV co-infection was dominant among males 1 in 43(2.3%) than in females 1 in 57(1.8%). However, age (p= 0.1031) and sex (p= 0.8399) were not statistically associated.
Conclusion: This study confirmed the presence of HIV/HBV co-infection in the study population. This highlights the necessity to create awareness of HBV prevention and transmission among HIV positive individuals.
(Accessed June 10, 2020)
Mandiwana A, Tshitenge S. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus — hepatitis B virus co-infection amongst adult patients in Mahalapye, Ngami, Serowe, Botswana: A descriptive cross-sectional study. South African Family Practice. 2017;59(3):94-97.
Guo Z, Shi XH, Feng YL, Wang B, Feng LP, Wang SP, Zhang YW. Risk factors of HBV intrauterine transmission among HBsAg-positive pregnant women. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2013;20(5):3173-21.
Guo JT, Pryce M, Wang X, Barrasa MI, Hu J, Seeger C. Conditional replication of duck hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells. Journal of Virology. 2013;77:1885–1893.
Navabakhsh B, Mehrabi N, Mohamadnejab M, Poustchi H. Hepatitis B virus infection during pregnancy; Transmission and prevention. Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2011;3(2):92-102.
World Health Organization (WHO). HIV epidemic status and prevalence. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2020.
(Accessed June 10, 2020)
Konopnicki D, Mocroft A, de Wit S, Antunes F, Ledergerber B, Katlama C. Hepatitis B and HIV: Prevalence, AIDS progression, response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and increased mortality in the EuroSIDA cohort. AIDS. 2005;19(6):593-601.
Adewole OO, Anteyi E, Ajuwon Z, Wada I, Elegba F, Ahmed P, Betiku Y, Okpe A, Eze S, Ogbeche T, Erhabor GE. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection in Nigerian patients with HIV infection. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2009;3(5):369-375.
Gomez-Gonzalo M, Carretero M, Rullas J, Lara-Pezzi E, Aramburu J, Berkhout B, Alcami J, Lopez-Cabrera M. The hepatitis B virus X protein induces HIV-1B replication and transcription in synergy with T-cell activation signals: Functional roles of NF-kappaB/NF-AT and SP1-binding sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2001;276(38):35435-35443.
Mustapha SK, Jibrin YB. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Gombe, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine. 2004;3(1):10–12.
Avwioro OG, Ekene EN, Afadu TE. HIV and HBV coinfection in Niger-Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Cellular Pathology. 2014;2:48-52.
Magoro T, Gachara G, Mavhandu L. Serological and genotypic characterization of hepatitis B virus in HIV-1 infected patients from West and Littoral Regions of Cameroun. Virology Journal. 2016;13:178.
Matthews PC, Geretti AM, Goulder PJ, Klenerman P. Epidemiology and impact of HIV coinfection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2014;61(1):20–33.
Weitzel T, Rodrı´guez F, Noriega LM, Marcotti A, Duran L, Palavecino C, Porte L, Aguilera X, Wolff M, Cortes CP. Hepatitis B and C virus infection among HIV patients within the public and private healthcare systems in Chile: A cross-sectional serosurvey. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(1):0227776.
Aliyu B, Manga SB, Isa MA. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among HIV positive patients attending specialist hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment. 2013;2(1):37-44.
Piliero PJ, Faragon JJ. Hepatitis B virus and HIV coinfection. The AIDS Reader. 2002;12(10):443-444,448-451.
Robertson D, Margolis HS. Primate hepatitis B viruses-genetic diversity, geography and evolution. Revision of Medical Virology. 2002;12:133-141.
Kye-Duodu G, Nortey P, Malm K, Nyarko KM, Sackey SO, Ofori S, Afari EA. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus co-infection among HIV-seropositive persons attending antiretroviral clinics in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2016;25(1):6172.
Utsumi T, Lusida MI. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia. World Journal of Virology. 2015;4(2):96.
Ekanem US, Eyoh JE, Esubok NU. Prevalence of hepatitis-B virus infection among HIV patients seen in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo. International Journal of Research in Biosciences. 2013;2(1):92-98.