Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Gastroenterology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Gastroenterology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRRGA/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Gastroenterology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Gastroenterology en-US Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Gastroenterology Oesopheal Granular Cell Tumor: A Uncommun Case Report <p>Granulor cell tumors (GCT) formally known as Abrikossoff tumors, are rare and usually benign tumors, most frequently occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissues but can also be found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract especially in the oesophagus (60% of cases).We discuss a case of a young woman with asthma who presented an acid reflux and was fortuitously diagnosed with oesophageal granular cell tumor (GCT) after esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). We discuss clinical, endoscopic and histopathological aspects of this case with the different criteria of diagnosis.</p> M. Tamzaourte I. Radouane S. Berrag A. Damiri S. Ouahid H. Chahdi T. Adioui ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 7 11 A Case Report of Primary Hepatosplenic Tuberculosis in an Immuno Competent Adult <p>Primary hepatosplenic tuberculosis is a rare disease, even in endemic areas the diagnosis can be challenging, as it can mimic other infections or neoplastic causes. We describe a rare case of a 50-year-old man with no medical history presented to our unit for exploration of weight loss and chronic abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense hepatics and splenic nodules, not enhanced after injection of the contrast; the liver is infiltrated with irregular edges and perfusion disturbances, giving an encephalic appearance. The histological examination of an ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy showed an epithelio-gigantocellular granuloma without caseating necrosis. However, the PCR test and the Quantiferon-TB Gold test returned positive. The patient was treated with quadruple therapy (ethambutol, rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazynamide) for two months, then rifampicin and isoniazid for seven months. At the six-month follow-up after stopping treatment, the patient was asymptomatic, and the hepatosplenic lesions had disappeared on a follow-up CT scan.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hepatosplenic tuberculosis is possible in a suggestive clinical and epidemiological context, even in an immunocompetent adult.</p> T. Adioui I. Radouane S. Ouahid H. Igourman S. Berrag M. Tamzaouerete ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 12 15 The Usefulness of Endoanal Endoscopic Ultrasound in Anal Disease <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Anal disease encompasses various disorders including sphincter defects, anorectal fistulas and abscesses, unexplained chronic anal pain, and anal cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic contribution of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in anal disease.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 56 patients underwent radial EUS examination, from March 2015 to March 2022.No sedation was needed for EUS examination. All EUS were performed using a flexible radial EUS probe with or without a linear probe and an ultrasound processor.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age was 42,4 years, 71,42% were female. The main clinical indication of anal EUS was the evaluation of anorectal suppuration, fecal incontinence (FI) and perineal crohn disease (CD). Anorectal suppurations were identified in 35,71% of cases. In patients with perineal CD, fistulas were found in 46.15% of CD cases. Anovaginal or rectovaginal fistulas (ARVFs) unrelated to CD were visualized in 8.93% of all cases. In patients presenting with FI, EUS identified internal and external anal sphincter defects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> EUS is a sensitive technique in the evaluation of anal anatomy and the diagnosis of benign and malignant anal disease.</p> M. Saidi Idrissi M. Salihoun I. Serraj M. Acharki N. Kabbaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-28 2022-05-28 1 6 Plasmid Profiling of Bacteria Associated with Gastroenteritis among Children in Owo, Ondo State <p>Antibiotic resistance among the children with gastroenteritis remains a major global problem around the world.&nbsp; This study was therefore carried out to determine the plasmid profile of bacterial isolates from children with gastroenteritis in Owo, Ondo State. A total of 115 stool samples were collected from the children with gastroenteritis. The stool samples were cultured on MacConkey Agar using standard laboratory technique. Plasmid analysis of the some selected multiple resistant isolates was carried out using alkaline Phosphate method. Post plasmid curing was also carried out using sodium deodecyclsulphate (SDS). Out of 115 stool samples analyzed, eighty seven (75.7%) bacteria were isolated. Four different bacteria belonging to 4 genera were isolated with <em>Escherichiacoli</em> having the highest occurrence rate of 70(80.5%), followed by <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> 10 (11.5%), <em>Proteus mirabilismirabilis</em>5(5.7%) and <em>Salmonella typhi</em> 2 (2.3%). Out of 70 <em>Escherichiacoli</em> serotyped, 17 (24.3%) were <em>Escherichia coli </em>0157 and 53 (75.7%) were Non-<em>Escherichia coli </em>0157<em>.</em> The antibiotic resistant of the bacteria isolates ranges from 5.8% to 100.0% with chloramphenicol and augmentin exhibiting highest resistant. The antibiotic tested exhibited 100% resistant to <em>Salmonellatyphi</em>. Out of the six bacteria isolates tested for the present of plasmid, four had a plasmid with 3 bacteria having molecular weight of 2120bp and one bacterium having molecular weight of 1910bp. Plasmid mediated resistant is more than chromosomal mediated resistant. However, antimicrobial resistant pattern of the bacteria isolates in this study is worrisome. Nevertheless, Amoxicillin and sparfloxacin with least resistant pattern could be used for the treatment of gastroenteritis.</p> Bola O. Ojo O. Abdulbasit Abdulrahman Abdulwasiu O. Haassan Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu Priscilla B. Olamijuwon Blessing O. Oyeromi Deborah O. Oluwanisola Uwumarogie Kelvin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 29 41 Conceptualization of Endocrine Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract <p>The gastrointestinal systems (GIT) and endocrine systems are integrated into a well-coordinated complex to meet the metabolic needs of the body. The endocrine functions and possible dysfunctions are less emphasized in the medical curriculum. Hormones are synthesized and released by different segments of the GIT to perform specific functions. The main sites of synthesis and secretion are the stomach and intestines. The hormones of the GIT are categorized as paracrine, neurocrine, and endocrine.</p> <p>Cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin, secretin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide or gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP), and motilin are Endocrine hormones. Somatostatin and histamine are examples of Paracrine hormones. Enkephalins, vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP), and gastrin-releasing peptides (GRP) are examples of neurocrine hormones. An additional three work together as paracrine and endocrine hormones Glucagon-like peptide [GLP-1], pancreatic polypeptide, and peptide-YY. Villikinin from Brunner’s gland of the duodenum, duocrinin from intestinal mucosa, and parotin are a few others rarely discussed in most literature. Gastrointestinal tract hormones play crucial roles in providing satiety, maintaining hormonal secretion and inhibition, and breaking down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into simple molecules for absorption. There are documented manifestations of hypersecretion or hyposecretion of these hormones. Likewise, known medical conditions can subsequently lead to GIT hormone dysfunction.</p> <p>Gastric Outlet Obstruction, Somastinoma, celiac disease, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, Crohn's disease,&nbsp; ulcerative colitis, tropical sprue, intestinal resection, pancreatic insufficiency, gastric ulcers, infective diarrhea, and Inflammatory bowel disease(IBS) are few known documented medical conditions that lead to GIT hormonal dysfunctions. The Article aims to reiterate the endocrine function and dysfunction of the GIT. The review article is part of an integrative learning process for students.</p> Adedeji Okikiade Reisha Browne-Caesar Damisola Ogunesan Olayinka Afolayan-Oloye Ibukunoluwa Oshobu Daniel Okundaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 16 28